Vger The Two Models Part Better Than Muses

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In cars, it can get 45 to 55 miles per gallon. The examples which have been given in this paper have necessarily been chosen chiefly to illustrate the width of his reading. Pemberton, Mr. I do think they are deliberately spinning a false alternative pseudo-scientific theory dressed up in fancy math in order to misdirect people away from a correct understanding of the physical world. And nobody — doubts that Bush's personal fortune has grown and prospered as a result of this conflict. Returning to the U.

XXX 3D Porn Pics

Referred to the Council of State to preserve the 'July James's from imbezzlement. After this Order past, the Council propounded it to me, whether I would take upon me the Charge and Care of these precious Medals and Books, and to be the Library-Keeper, and to appoint whom I thought fit to look to them under me.

I knew the greatness of the charge, and considered the prejudice that might fall out, by being responsible for those rich jewels, the imbezzlement whereof would be attempted by many, and my other occupations would not permit me to give much personal attendance on this business, nor to enjoy much of the delight of perusing them.

James's and to have lodgings in the house belonging to the place, and recommended to me Mr. Duery, a German by birth, a St. Whitelocke's narrative, though under date July 30, of course embraces also the events of the subsequent months,. John Durie appointed Library-Keeper of the and to have the lodgings belonging to that place, and to make an inventory of the books, medals and mss.

Dury to be Library-Keeper at St. James's 'Oct. House, and Col. Berkstead to appoint convenient lodgings for him. The new chapel of St. James's to be used as a and Mr. Durie to take care that the books and medals be removed there as soon as it is finished. Lord Commissioner Lisle, Sir Hen. Vane, and 'Nov.

Challoner added to the Committee formerly appointed for the library viz. Lisle, and Sir. Milton's book written in answer to the late King's book,' i.

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James's are assigned to another, and our interest in him sensibly. Libraries which is in description of one of the chiefest and ordered by one of the most Germanic, erected Printed by London Princes in Europe.

The Librarie-Keeper's place and office, in most countries as most other Places and Offices both in Churches and Universities are lookt upon, as Places of profit and gain, and so accordingly sought after and valued in that regard and not in regard of the service, which is to bee don by them unto the Common-wealth of Israel, for the advancement of Pietie and Learning; for the most part men look after the maintenance, and livelihood settled upon their Places, more then upon the end and usefulness of they seek themselves and not the Publick their emploiments '.

For if such an allowance were settled upon the emploiment as might maintain a man of parts and generous thoughts, then a condition might bee annexed to the bestowing of the Place that none should be called thereunto but such as had approved themselves zealous and profitable in som publick waies of I-earning to advance the same, or that sixtie ;:.

For the increas of the stock both at home and abroad, correspondencie should bee held with those that are eminent in everie Science, to Trade with them for their profit, that what they want and wee have, they may receiv upon condition, that what they have and wee want, they should impart in that facultie wherein their eminence doth. I would then upon this account have an Order made that once in the year the Librarie-Keeper should bee bound to give an '.

Copie into the Universitie Librarie and it is impossible one man to read all the Books in all Faculties, to judg of them what worth there is in them nor hath everie one Abilitie to judg of all kinde of Sciences what everie Author doth handle, and how sufficiently therefore I would have at this time of giving accounts the Librarie-Keeper also bound to produce the Catalogue of all the Books sent unto the Universitie's Librarie by the Stationers that Printed them to the end that everie one of the Doctors in their own Faculties should declare, whether or no they should bee to send a for ; ;.

Additional for I do not think that all Books and Treatises, which in this age are Printed in all kindes, should bee inserted into ;. These thoughts com thus suddenly into my head, which in due time may bee more fully described, if need bee, chiefly if, upon the ground of this account, som competencie should bee found out and allowed to maintein such charges as will bee requisite towards the advancement of the Publick good of Learning after this manner.

Clearly these earliest cuts throw no Worde's job lots. Ihones in , is of more interest. If I am right in '. Both these are turning their faces to a group of The ladies seated on a dais, presumably as spectators. Three other sixteenth-century plays, Marlowe's 'Faustus,' Hieronimo,' were issued 'Friar Bacon' and '. Written by Chr. As it was lately plaid by the Prince Palatine his servants.

I warrant you, sir, I have so armed myself that if all your devils do come I will not fear them an inch. But the and Bacon very fast asleep, while the labels issuing from the Head's mouth, 'Time was,' 'Time is,' 'Time is Past,' show that the text of the play had been read, though not very carefully. Hieronimo's garden, the lady hears Lorenzo, Balthazar, Cerberim, and PedLorenzo, the jealous brother,.

Who calls Hieronimo? I did not slumber. No, no it was some woman cried for help. And here within the garden did she cry, And in this garden must I rescue her. But stay, what murdrous spectacle is this? A man hang'd up, and all the Murderers gone And in my Bower, to lay the guilt on me? This place was made for pleasure, not for death ; ;.

The labels issuing from the actors' mouths show that the artist had studied his text, and I cannot resist remarking on how admirably he has caught the pose of the straw dummy, which must have been left. Of plays first acted in the seventeenth century which have woodcuts, the not me, you Elizabeth. Seven years later the same publisher similarly When you see me embellished another chronicle play, you know me, or the famous Chronicle Historic of King Henrie the Eight, with the birth and vertuous life of Edward Prince of Wales.

As it was played by the high and mightie Prince of Wales his servants. By Samuel Rowly, servant to the Prince. Middleton and P. Frith, a Cut-Purse was a real person, of whom, as Mary judicial account from the pen of Mr. BuUen will be. Bubble is the type of the foolish young gentleman who wants to know 'the lowest price of being italianated.

Here we have depicted the chief incident of the play, the fight which Aspatia, in man's clothes, forces upon Amintor in order to end her life at his hand. The drawing is a little rude, but, as will be seen Church-yard, You must be urged, I do not deal With those that dare to fight, but such as you Must be used thus. The spirit thou pretendest, and understand Thou hast no hour to live.

What dost thou mean? Thou canst not fight. The blows thou mak'st at me are quite besides, And those I offer at thee, thou spread'st thine arms And tak'st upon thy breast, alas, defenceless I. As for artist, no doubt he did his best. Walkley in , the title-page shows a well-drawn figure of a man, above whose head, half on, In half off it, a crown is held by an arm from the sky.

Swetnam the Woman-hater, arraigned by women,' printed for Richard Meighen the next year, a fairly good cut, which I regret to have remembered too late to have the ' '. The Fair Maid of the West, The first part. As it was lately acted before the King and Queen, with approved liking, by the Queens Majesties Comedians.

Written by T. The Death of Aiax, etc. Written by Thomas Heywood,' we have a very pictorial title-page, which dulv to the stage direction: Okes, the title-cut shows Troy in flames, the Greeks issuing from the wooden horse, and in the foreground Sinon and Thersites engaged in a most conventional stage dialogue.

The actual greet-. As it hath '. Written and. Printed at London by Nicholas Okes, Hats and caps, adieu must leave you, if the Drum say true. Nay, then, have with you, brothers With as much vigour hath burst forth as thine, Charles. Let's try what restrain'd as yours. London Prentices can do Eustace. For my Trades sake, if good success The grocers arms shall in my ensign wave.

And if my valour bring me to command The Goldsmiths' arms shall in my colours stand. So of us all. Then let us in one fleet. These are brave words, and the coats of arms hung over the 'prentices' heads are in. But there is a stage direction later on in the play 'Alarum. The four brethren each of them kill a Pagan king, take off their crowns and exeunt, two one way and and I cannot but regret that the artist two another way ' ;.

Our last famous horse on a platform. Mother moments in the play. Sawyer is found by the dog said dog, of course, being 'a Familiar' cursing 'that curmudgeon Banks,' the. The dog subsequently it is only when he finds people cursing that he can obtain powers over them of life and death, but before owning to this limitation he has rather unfairly got part is.

Nor are these gruesome epigrams the only apples in the garden of offensive to. Ben of his favourite Jonson. Inclusion among them was clearly reckoned as an honour, and many of the poems in which which recalls the '. John Selden the Antiquary, for instance, whose intimacy was no small honour, and Dr. Alabaster, who in his young days had become a convert to Catholicism while serving with Essex in Spain, but whose apocalyptic writings brought him into trouble with the Inquisition, from whose clutches he was glad to find refuge in a return to Protestantism and an English living.

John Crofts, cup-bearer to the King, is another friend purpose. Crofts seems to have had worse faults than this of using incorrect phrases, for a year or two later there is a record of a petition from George, Lord Digby, praying to be released from an imprisonment incurred for assaulting Herrick's friend under very irritating provocation.

Jack had passed some insult on a lady under Lord Digby's escort, had apologised, had boasted of the original offence, and when finally brought to book had interspersed remarks such as 'Well! But this is the petitioner's account, and Jack himself might have given a different version. Others of Herrick's friends seem occasionally got themselves into trouble.

Chancellor of the Diocese of Exeter, when. Many of Herrick's poems bear reference, direct or indirect, to the Civil War. He bewailed the separation of the King and Queen, welcomed Charles to the West in ;. London, there to take his place in a little band of wits who were able to endure the gloom of the Presbyterian He passed his rule which then held the city in its grasp.

Hesperides and Noble Numbers through the press, made friends with young John Hall, then fresh from Cambridge but with a European reputation for cleverness ' '. Montaigne overpraised Leonard Willan, a wretched poet and dramatist, and contributed a curious poem to the Lachrymae Musarum,' in which, under the editorship of Richard Brome, all the wits of the day poured forth their Then lament for the death of Lord Hastings in The mention of Herrick's 'Temple' or 'Book' of his ; '.

After his father's suicide for the fall. This of itself was to him from his father's estate. But it was apparently not paid regularly Herrick was frequently in pecuniary straits, and about he migrated from St. John's to Trinity Hall in order to tone of the letters ;. But there is no reason to imagine that Herrick's university career was an idle one.

His poems show considerable traces of a knowledge and love of the classics. He translates from Virgil that charming passage which payment. A fuller account of Herrick's indebtedness to Greek and Latin authors will be found in another paper. This brief survey of his classical studies may suffice to prove that he was no idler, and when he left the university and returned to town he must have been well own with the best wits of the day.

The well-known poem on His Age,' dedicated to his peculiar friend, Mr. John Weekes under the name of Posthumus,' contains in the printed version some vague reminiscences able to hold his ' '. And Nansagge, acquaintances of the years ere yet Herrick had donned his parson's to those of. A friend suggests that Hind may have been John Hind, an Anacreontic poet and friend of Greene, and has found and a Nansagge, of whom, however, only the names are known.

Smith, despite the commonness of the name, may almost certainly be identified with James Smith, a poet whose few verses sometimes strike a curiously modern note. Like Herrick he acted at one time as chaplain to a squadron sent to the relief of the Isle of Rhe, and like Herrick also became a Devonshire parson.

He was, too, one of the editors and Musarum Deliciae,' writers of the Anthology known as and his colleague in that task, the gallant royalist sailor, Sir John Mennis, was also a friend of Herrick, who addressed a poem to him. John Wicks, or Weekes, the Posthumus of Herrick's verses, was another friend of Mennis and Smith, and also a country clergyman.

The references to a Goderiske Goodrich ' ' '. Ships lately from the islands came With wines, thou never heard'st their Montefiasco, Frontiniac, Viatico and that old Sack Young Herrick took to entertain The Muses in a sprightly vein'. Weekes, however, so Antony Wood tells us, was a good preacher as well as a merry fellow. His living was in Cornwall, but he added to it a canonry at Bristol.

Herrick addresses two other poems to him one a ; '. Since shed or cottage I have none, I sing the more that thou hast one, To whose glad threshold and free door I may a poet come, though poor, And eat with thee a savoury bit. Paying but common thanks for it.

If Herrick made some friends among members of his own profession, his love of music probably procured him many more. He addresses poems to William and Henry. The last named, who 'set' his version of the dialogue between Horace and Lydia, may have been a Cambridge friend, as he was organist of Trinity College According to the Calendars of State Papers,' Edward Norgate the elder was in 1 appointed, conjunction with Andrea Bassano, to the office of tuner.

His son, another Edward, was originally a scrivener in the King's service, and was employed to write, limn and garnish with gold and colours the royal letters to a picturesque list of foreign potentates, including the Grand ' '. For one so rarely tun'd to fit all parts, For one to whom espoused are all the arts, Long have I sought for, but could never see.

Buckingham, whom he accompanied as chaplain to the Isle of Rhe, was probably the most influential of the poet's protectors, and Herrick addresses an effusive poem to him, and a prettier one to With the Earl of Westhis sister. Lady Mary Villiers. The list of lesser men of rank, knights and baronets, among Herrick's friends is of about Sir Simeon Steward, who competed the same length.

Anacreon and Horace the come to visit his cell, an invitation which implies familiarity. Yet it is to be feared that with all these good knights Herrick held the Elizabethan relation of poet to patron rather than a purely equal friendship. Pemberton, Mr. Kellan and others, show that Herrick loved to frequent a rich man's table, and that cellar.

Herrick's ducal is. Originally in the service of Buckingham, he accompanied the Duke and Prince Charles on their visit to Spain, and passed into the latter's service some time in the year as a groom of respects the most interesting of. Then we hear him as an assistant in the Corporation of Saltmakers. Yarmouth, and a little later he is concerned in the erection of a light-house and harbour at Filey, near Flamborough Head.

An invention for perfecting bar-iron without the use of Scotch coal was his next venture, and, having apparently obtained a patent for for a this,. King to examine all accounts made to his Majesty, and when they found any accountants to have deceived the King, to make what advantage they could, either by compounding with delinquents of that kind or by prosecuting them, the King Hamilton, obtained leave from the.

While Endymion was absent in Spain the letter's of husband and wife are full of pretty quarrels and reconciliations. Her will,' he writes once, must be done, or else there will be but little quiet and again, I wish no more wrangling till we meet, absence being punishment enough.

I beg you not to beat George their eldest son so much, unless Olive, ' ' '. Let there be patrons, patrons like to thee, Brave Porter poets ne'er will wanting be Fabius and Cotta, Lentulus all live! There are yet others of Herrick's friends of whom we would fain write, notably a group of charming ladies Mistress Bridget Lowman, to whom he wrote his 'Meadow Verse'; Mrs.

Catherine Bradshaw, the lovely, that crowned him and last, but certainly not least, that Pearl with laurels '. By was upon the stage, the habit of copying old authors had become a subject for of authority which ,. But it is curious to note, though Buckingham was probably quite ignorant of the fact, that when the words were first spoken a poet was still living, in a quiet country parsonage, to whom by.

The poet was Robert Herrick, by common consent one of the most individual and original of poets, from whose title to that honour nothing in this paper will in any way detract. For Herrick's borrowings assuredly were the outcome less of his poverty of thought than of his wealth of music. A saying pleased him, and by putting in or leaving out a few words he seems to have made it run into graceful verse with an ease and charm.

In the sole edition of his 1. Neither can it be said Sir John Davies, Bastard, that the men who wrote them Pick, Parrot, the Mays, and the rest are of great interest. But the popularity of the epigram, as testified by such a Wit's Recreation,' which ran through five collection as of.

Now, of these epigrams Herrick wrote somewhat more than his fair share, and they were so much in the temper. Most of these unpleasant verses he must take upon his own shoulders, though for a considerable number he found his evil inspiration in Martial. But for his cleaner epigrams he was often indebted, as we have also be traced in said,.

Seneca and Tacitus, and the influence of these authors may some of the gnomic sayings which occasionally heighten the effect of his best. Trust to the shore Ships have been drown'd where late they danced before' ;. Tanto proclivius est iniuriae quam beneficio vicem ex'. At plus diligi '. Even in weightier matters than poHtics we must be on our guard against tricks.

Numbers' Herrick quotes or paraphrases same way from S. Augustine, Cassiodorus, S. Bernard, S. Basil, S. To Ovid his indebtedness for phrases and turns of thought is still more marked. Muse' he is inspired by Martial i. All xvi. Greek authors was mainly The Cruel Maid is a derived from Latin translations.

Anacreon that the curious student of such matters is sent hunting through the pages of his Bergk in a vain search for originals which never existed. Herrick went late to the University, and, despite the extreme propriety of the language as to his reading which we find in his letters to his goldsmith-uncle when he was in need of a remittance, it is difficult to believe that he was ever a very earnest or laborious student.

Now Jonson, Burton, and Montaigne, as it is hardly necessary to remark, all three drew inspiration from the classics, and it would not be difficult to. Let them take time then while they may, make advantage of youth,' etc. Surely, it should make us rate it We may almost say that what Herrick more highly.

It has become a of Herrick as a artist, '. The examples which have been given in this paper have necessarily been chosen chiefly to illustrate the width of his reading. Even in the case of book-plates, it has often been noted. Book-plates, however, have of right a separate existence apart from books, since they are made separately and must await their owners' pleasure before they can be set to their proper.

Speculum Vitae Christi led the late Mr. Blades to But these that Pynson was Caxton's apprentice. What the collector should aim at is to obtain the earliest. Perhaps from the fact that the Anchor and Dolphin which Aldus adopted as his device were counterfeited with evil intent, it has sometimes been said that the devices were used as trade marks to protect the copyright of the Copyright as such did not books in which they occur.

We must take it that the devices were purely ornamental, aiming, no doubt, at the glorification of the printers. Hence, perhaps, the variety we find They may be simply personal, containing only the printer's private arms or in some few cases his portrait. They may join his initials or some motto of his choice to the arms of the city in which he worked, or to some more or less graceful scroll work.

They may reproduce the mercial significance. As we should expect, there is a movement from simplicity to ornateness. That of Arnold ther Hoernen, of Cologne about , is in the same style, but even more modest. A few years later, Giinther Zainer, of Augsburg, showed.

But though Schoffer, ther Hoernen, and Zainer thus led was very little followed in Germany during the fifteenth century, and it is in other countries and of in. But how it came to be imitated so widely, and whether any meaning, symbolical or otherwise, can be extracted from the design, are problems to which no satisfactory answer has been returned.

Sessa, reproduced on page The last five printers all worked at Venice, and almost all ;. But the typical French device is much more pictorial than any of these. The arms of France and of the city of Italian design, ;. The second device of Antoine Caillaut reproduced on p. They range from the twin shields of Veldener and Gerard Leeu to such imposing devices as the elephant and howdah used, with punning intent, by an unknown printer ' G.

Of those which belong to neither of these classes, by far the finest as a piece of decorative work is that of Diego de Gumiel, of Valladolid see page , the effect of which French or Italian, in others rather dull. His son Juan adopted an extraordinary device seizing a lady by the hair, with an inscription 'Legitime certanti,' which must be taken as knight.

Paul's Churchyard, who published a few books between and It seemed permissible to '. The change is one of a kind with which collectoif of book-plates are familiar,. To Messrs. Bell and Co. William Roberts has contributed a pleasant volume, which offers an easy introduction for beginners.

Paris printers of the fifteenth century. Kristeller's Die Italienischen Buchdrucker und Verlegerzeichen bis ' is excellent, and its publishers Heitz and Miindel have brought out similar monographs on the marks used at Strasburg, Basel, Frankfort, and The earlier Cologne, and also in Spain and Portugal. For lack of a better word these three hundred books have been dignified in the heading of this article by the title of a 'collection,' but it is due to the great reputation of Sir Wollaston Franks as a collector to say that he himself would probably have smiled if he had heard them called so.

As all bookish people know, one of his real hobbies was the collection of book-plates, his countless specimens of which passed at his death to another department of the British Museum, that of Prints and Drawings, where considerable progress has been made in describing and their bindings armorial book-stamps.

Society's Monographs, shows the spirit in which he would have pursued the collection of armorial bindings had he taken it up seriously. As it was, he. Other information, as far as I am aware, can only be obtained by painful search in books of heraldry and genealogy and in biographies. Towards the close of the age of manuscripts, it became a fairly.

Lord Lumley bear their names, 'Thomas Cantuariensis' and 'Lumley,' in the handwriting of their secretaries or librarians. One or two instances are found of names printed or written on book-edges. That of. Every one, however, knows the inscriptions which the three great collectors, As the Grolier, Maioli, and Lauwrin put on their books.

In Germany such names and dates were frequently branded in black on pigskin bindings. In other countries the names are, as a rule, stamped in gold. As late as the eighteenth century Lord Oxford used to stamp his name, 'Robert Harley,' on his books, in addition to his. Davenport in his article on Some Popular fifteenth. Wollaston Franks, but the English stamps, which number rather over a hundred, must engage our first attention.

One of the earliest of these is a small stamp of the arms of. Archbishop Parker, forming the centre of a rather decoraThe book it is tive binding, obviously of English work. Two other books in the Franks collection are connected. One of stamps with Parker's royal mistress. This is found on a by their.

Testament of , an edition which the queen would be very likely to possess. But whether this copy was ever in her library we have no means Plantin. William Petre the second Baron Towneley arms, Nichols's Thucydides printed at London in , and bear the. Readers familiar with Mr. Hardy's excellent little treatise on Bookplates may remember that the Towneley plate which forms its frontispiece bears the date , just a century later.

Ralph Sheldon, the seventeenth-century antiquary. The first of these bears not his own arms but those of Augustine Vincent, the Windsor Herald, which two years ago attracted attention from being found, stamped the possession of in blind,. Augustine Vincent died in , and his son sold his books to Ralph Sheldon, who on his death in bequeathed.

This copy, in the possession of Mr. Coningsby Sibthorp, of Sudbrooke Holme, more than a century, is fully it has belonged for described by Mr. Sidney Lee on p. Baroness Burdett-Coutts, which formerly belonged to Ralph Presumably both copies at one time Vincent's library. Sheldon arms are quar' ' ' '. Sheldon,' and on the cover the Sheldon arms as here shown.

From their dates these must therefore have belonged not to Elizabeth's favourite, whose arms are figured in Mr. Fletcher's article, since he died in , but to a son of his cousin of the same name, of Clay Hall, Barking. He was responsible. John Maitland, created Viscount Lauderdale in those of the Earl of Huntingdon are found on a Camden's Britannica of those of William Covert of Sussex, on the 5 edition of the works of Gervase Babington '.

Frankfort, those of Wilmer on Survey of London,' Further investigation would no doubt yield a tale as to each of these volumes, but we may not linger over them. We must stop, however, to note that the arms of Archbishop Laud, on a. Kenelm Digby having been France under the inhospitable gave to the king the chattels of Sir Wollaston Franks was, three.

Fletcher's article, while the third bears his coat impaled with hers,. History of and a Prayer Book of carry two different stamps of the arms of John, Lord Somers there are three books with the stamp and a ;. These eighteenth-century books and their owners are somewhat less interesting than the earlier ones to which most of this article has been devoted, and in attempting to enumerate them it is difficult to avoid the style of a cataThe danger is all the greater when we turn to the logue.

French books, for here Guigard has been before us, and there is no purpose to be served by making extracts from his pages. There are also two or three Spanish books, all the more welcome because Spanish bindings are so seldom met with in England, and a few fairly good specimens of the bookbinder's craft But the English books are without armorial stamps.

Countries mostly school-prizes. There are not wanting other indications that our young draper came of a well-to-do stock, and we may, that our hero therefore, conclude that in. This ascertained, we become excited purchase of the book itself, and search by the information that, quills, it.

In copying his back accounts into his new purchase, John divided his book into two halves, keeping the first for 'what I have layd out since I came to London on my. I did bring up to town at the first and sent me since and given me by freinds. Tailors were evidently more modest in their charges in those days.

It is difficult at first to. John could have set down twopennyworth of sugar candy under the head of 'Thinges layd out on my Father's charge,' but we soon find a further entry of 'Things for. His barber is still an expensive item, for his his cold also Peruke needs constant attention requires sugar candy and other things,' but he executes a great piece of economy by having Wastcoate turned to: The next page or two are filled with desultory memoranda of small sums received in the form of 'tips,' and ending up with these two statements tion of to a Pen,':.

Of nature of that wooing one would gladly learn a little in those. The Roads I found much better than by way of Weather Thanks be to God pretty favourable, My greatest trouble was to think y'' nearer I was to my journeys End, y' I was still y'' farther from y'' Dear. Hackney shall be delivered with care and speed.

Throughout the whole letter, indeed, there is a delightful simplicity and homeliness which even the stilted phraseology of the period cannot quite spoil, and which tempts us to think that when the melancholy distance of some thirty miles no longer kept the lovers apart, John may possibly have greeted his lady just a little more warmly greatest trouble. Immediately '. I week's money Jan.

Sept'" 29, Other small things Mantle pr. Items for wine and beer are within the twelve months. There is still another record of the birth of a daughter, who, like the first, lived but a few days. Thus in February 17 16,. The shop also ceases to be mentioned, and we have numerous entries of rents paid by tenants in Huntingdon indeed it would seem that soon after the death of his wife's father, which occurred in June , John Payne left London and went down to manage his estates in Huntingdon, where he seems to have been in.

Out of this property, however, he has to pay quarterly dividends to his mother and sister. At what period John Payne again left his country house to mix once more in London business life, whether he was personally connected with the bank or only lent his money and his name, or whether indeed he ever was one of the founders or left that honour to his son John, is all a matter of conjecture yet one closes the quaint little old book with feelings of regret, and would fain follow its owner a little further.

The last date is , when he must still have been a comparatively young man. As a matter of fact, most men do marry, and it the most. Stevenson's assertion that though the is a wife the ideal man is a bachelor, and so. Coals and candles weigh heavily on his mind. His bachelor dinners have cost him an average of los. This detailed calculation over, we again catch a glimpse of the man's personality and his conception of what is due If my Wife pleases me, as I from him towards a wife.

Walter Besant's ideal father providing an endowment or fortune for each child will require a. Fifty pounds is plate alone, without which, being so moderate a '. I wish the Lady all Happiness and a better Husband, and if it be for her Satisfaction, one who has thought less of the Matter '.

One Thing I would not have you mistaken in, Lists,. And all this is submitted to the proposer by his Obliged and Humble Servant. One of these, '. The second rejoinder Advocate,' and is probably not, as it pretends, written by a man on behalf of women in general, but rather by an irritated member of the weaker sex, who finds herself and is is. To the Rector you will give 6d. She goes on to say an Easter offering to the Lecturer what you please.

You need not join Lamp, vScavenger, and Watch seldom the Militia. Have the two maids so little must e'en employ a man to play with 'em? She does not always assign her reasons, but boldly makes such statements as the following Your Butcher's '. Bill is over-rated at least one Third. Your Poulterer's and Fishmonger's more than two Thirds.

As for the Herb-Woman you have overtopt her with a Vengeance Twelve pence a week is more than enough for greens etc. There is more banter about greenstuff and salads, during which the bachelor is taunted with being a meer Season. Words fail the 'Advocate' in which to pour sufficient:. Had I any Power in the Legislature, you should not only be punished for Mischievous Libel, but all Batchelors above the age of Thirty should be double Tax'd.

Lucas, and in coloured pictures This charming book describes the introduction of a country child to the delights and sights of London. It is the result of a well-known partnership between author and artist. Demy C. Illustrated by F. Brightman, M. Milms, M. Edited by A. Rubie, M. Crown 8vo. Sornet and M. Edited by W. Flecker, M. Methuen are publishing a series of children's books under The new volumes are the above general title.

By Netta Syrett. Anstey, Author of 'Vice Bernard Partridge. By Eden Phii. Cro7vn 87'0 6s. By Richard Bagot. Cro7C'n Si-o. Illustrated A. XTbe IFlovclist Messrs. Number is as long as the average Six Shilling Novel. By George Eliot. By Captain Marryat. By Mrs. By Jane Austen. By Charlotte Bronte. Newly Translated, with an Introduction Cloth, 2t leather, [.

Library of Devotion. The translation Is an excellent piece of English, and the introduction is a masterly exposition. We augur well of a series which begins so satisfactorily. Edited by E. Two I'olumes. Pott 8vo. Each volume, cloth, IS. A Diary of Life in Ashanti, With 21 Illustrations and a Map, Third Edition. Huniingforh, M. Crown Svo. Demy 8vo. Daily Telegraph. Balfour has done his work extremely done it, in fact, as Stevenson himself would have wished it done, with care and His skill and affectionate appreciation.

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Hutton, M. With Tortrait. Cro-Mii Zvo. Jevons, M. He is at once critical and luminous, at once just and suggestive. A comprehensive and thorough book. Henrlk Ibsen. A Drama. Translated by William Wilson. Writing in , Hanns Eisler and Theodor Adorno lamented the state of Hollywood lm scoring in their Composing for the Films, listing a number of prejudices and bad habits The classical Hollywood style of lm scoring has been and continues to be solidly grounded in an accessible, late Romantic, nineteenth century norm of composition reminiscent of Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss and Richard Wagner, with an emphasis on leitmotif and melody, and of course, tonal language.

Eisler and Adorno added to the list clich and lack of dynamic development. They called for the increased use of the new music resources in lms, by which they meant the avant-garde, a tradition of highly modernist concert music that began to develop in the early 20th century, initially with composers such as Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, and Igor Stravinsky, subsequently with the revolutionary ideas of Arnold Schoenberg, who boldly went where no one.

Highly educated musical men advocated for the new music; Leopold Stokowski rmly supported it and even verbally admonished audiences if they did not embrace it Prendergast Although they did not believe that traditional music could never be appropriate for lm, Eisler and Adorno argued passionately that such music was almost always mired in clich and false associations.

They saw the new music as a rationalized, objective form which would allow the true nature of the scene in question to be seen and experienced The fact that very few people were able to enjoy or appreciate the new music did not deter them; of course, their goal was to challenge and edify the viewing public rather than to give them what they expected or desired.

Meanwhile, outside the most elite listening contexts, reactions ranged from confusion to complete abhorrence, even rejection of the sounds as music per se. Indeed, even where one has learned to appreciate the structural purposefulness of atonal music, there is no guarantee of listening pleasure. Atonal music simply does not guarantee the kind of satisfying resolution that western ears, after a lifetime of training, expect as Eisler and Adorno were well aware.

Their comments on the possibilities for the use of avant-garde music in certain genres of lms, although characteristically elitist,6 contained some fascinating and complex suggestions. They listed King Kong as one of the great sensational lms and observed when the giant gorilla hurls a New York elevated train down into the street that [t]he traditional music written for such scenes has never been remotely adequate while modern music could t the bill The lm might be melodramatic trash, but if you must have a giant ape hurling a streetcar, you had best deploy the cutting edge in musical resources!

Their argument seemed less based on the absence of tonal resolution than the fact that only the most objective i. As for the audience, Eisler and Adorno commented that they might notice the supercial effects of dissonance 40 , and the lack of a recognizable melody In the years following publication of Composing for the Films, Eisler and Adorno must have lamented to see their hopes for lm music never really fullled, as lm music scoring has remained indebted to the 19th century late romantic tradition Gorbman except to some extent in the sensational genres of sci- and horror, and only in the supercial sense that they identied that is, composers have been well aware of the effects of dissonance: It is surely not a coincidence that atonality makes its deepest inroads in suspense, horror and science ction lms Beginning in the s we nd the gradual incorporation of modern,.

In these scores we nd a workmanlike commitment to chromaticism, dissonance, tone clusters and the use of odd instrumentation. The lmgoers demand for melody, melody, melody at all costs, much decried by Eisler and Adorno, was countered to some extent by the monster idiom in sci- scores.

It could be argued that the monster motifs were recognizable as melodies, but they were odd, usually based upon a chromatic rather than tonal scale, which violates one of the primary rules of constructing a pleasing melody Jourdain Just as an interval based on a chromatic scale would suggest atonality, a melody constructed of a chain of such intervals would do the same.

Thus, the melodies to which I alluded earlier for It Came from Outer Space and Clovereld although possibly pleasing, depending upon ones taste, could very well create a crawly, tense sensation. Eisler and Adorno wrote of the afnity between King Kong and the avantgarde with absolutely no sense of conict or irony. That is, even though they clearly viewed cinema as mass art, at least in its western industrial incarnation, they did not hesitate at the prospect of incorporating the new, cutting edge music in the populist cinema.

It might be argued there is a great difference between incorporating a complete composition such as Ligetis Lux Aeterna in , and the adaptation of certain techniques, gestures or instruments in a lm score. While Eisler and Adorno would have likely rejoiced at the use of the highest of high art Donnelly 44 in , I doubt they would have felt that the more common sci- scoring practices I will soon be detailing represent their ideal in lm music.

Nevertheless, I would deny that these practices are merely a mainstream-ication or popularization of some otherwise inaccessible musical style. I prefer to name it a paradox. The paradox consists in the fact that instruments and sounds were adopted from the musical avant-garde into a popular genre and that these elements remain truly avantgarde while being truly popular: Sounds of the Future This exploration of the popular avant-garde begins around the turn of the twentieth century.

At the Worlds Fair in Paris, many of the exhibitions emphasized technological accomplishments of western culture, with many more accomplishments presumably to come. The expositions encapsulated and celebrated the achievements of an industrialized modern society, inspiring artists, engineers, musicians, architects and many others Toop, Ocean, Not coincidentally, one of the most popular exhibits at the Fair.

Indeed, it cannot be an accident that both lm and avant-garde music nd their origins in this time period, when western culture was ushed with faith in its own progress. Science ction was born as a self-conscious literary genre somewhere in this time period, although it did not name itself until a few decades later.

The quest for new sounds to accompany the new future was underway. Fundamentally, its purpose was to explore the meaning of sound itself by nding and creating new sounds, new music and new instruments. This was the stated objective of the Futurist Luigi Russolo who wrote in his manifesto of The Art of Noises that music should be based on found noise, the voices of animals, shouts, screams, groans, shrieks, and so on Chadabe 3.

As the quest continued on through the decades of the 20th century there would be a number of identied movements with different manifestos musique concrte, electronic music, experimental music, tape music, exotica. They were often contemporaries, part of an international community struggling to nd the resources and the technologies to build instruments that could express their new music Prendergast 3.

Their efforts were always essentially forward looking, based on the most contemporary technologies. There are many histories to be traced within this history, one of which is the history of electronic instruments. It will be impossible to discuss all of them, as there have been hundreds of such instruments, many of them obscure; I will attempt to touch upon a few of the more impactful.

Of course, no electronic instrument has been more famous in terms of its place in lm history than the theremin, named after its inventor Lon Thrmin, a Russian physicist and musician. As I have already mentioned, the new instrument arose during a time when many were trying to create new instruments, many of them electronic. Musical adventurers in places such as London, Paris, Berlin, Toronto, Moscow, New York, Los Angeles, and Buenos Aires were engaged in a grand speculation on the future of music; and this exploration frequently centered on applications of technology; either using technology to capture or reproduce the sounds of modern life, or to produce entirely new sounds by designing instruments that could exceed the capabilities of traditional acoustic instruments.

The theremin was born into this world alongside a handful of other experimental instruments. Prior to the theremin there had been Thaddeus Cahills Telharmonium and Lee de Forests audion oscillator; de Forest had discovered that the audion could be used to produce.

Thrmins instrument was signicantly more practical, however; in , he patented it in Moscow, and later in Paris and New York The theremin is thus associated with the popular sensibility that technology was transforming society in ways that were unprecedented. Indeed, the theremin was presented as a thoroughly modern instrument, a possible advance in music just as radio was a technological advance in communications.

As much engineer as musician, Thrmin was initially successful at promoting his invention as the classical concert instrument of the future, holding hundreds of recitals in the Soviet Union, later in Paris, and ultimately in New York Chadabe 8. Thrmin also attempted to access a discourse of populism, claiming that anyone could play the instrument provided that they could carry a tune; however, in truth the theremin is a diabolical instrument not only for the physical coordination it requires to synchronize the hand movements around the two antennae, but especially for the demands made on the performers sense of pitch.

The player must be able to remember precise positions in three-dimensional space, without reference to frets or a ngerboard. Moreover, small inadvertent motions of the right arm will cause the pitch to uctuate noticeably RCA obtained a license to mass produce the theremin but never sold more than a few hundred Prendergast Still, although the instrument never became popular in terms of home sales and performance, it became wellknown through radio broadcasts, and Thrmin discovered a prodigy in Clara Rockmore; they successfully promoted the instrument as a futuristic concert instrument.

A number of new pieces were composed, including Varses Ecuatorial which required two theremins. Stokowski adopted the instrument for concert performance Chadabe 8; Prendergast 26, However, the life of Leon Thrmin took a bizarre and, for a man whose instrument was later associated with Cold War era lm, strangely appropriate turn, when he was abducted back to the Soviet Union in , imprisoned, and then ultimately hired by the K.

The cultural history of the theremin as an instrument thus also took a curious turn, one that perhaps it would not have had its inventor remained in America, guiding its fortunes. Turning to the news accounts of the time, one is struck by the reviewers concerns with the limitations of the instrument, particularly its pitch instability, but it was admitted that this might have been the fault of the player rather than the instrument Ether Concert; Prunieres Ether Wave.

The most frequently applied adjective was beautiful Kaempffert Music Amazes; Inventor to Exhibit; Kaempffert, Wave of the Hand , and many further described it as varying in quality between the sound of a violin and a cello. The reactions of the public, or at least the fashionable public of New York concert-goers and reporters, seemed to range from politely curious to enthusiastic, rather than alarmed.

There is perhaps a thin thread of uneasiness detectable in the persistent concern over pitch instability, and the repeated references to the theremin as an aether instrument. In fact, Thrmin himself invoked this discourse of otherworldliness by naming the instrument, originally, the aetherophone. The aether was, in the quasi-scientic discourse of the time, a propagating medium for electro-magnetic waves Leydon As Jeffrey Sconce notes, this terminology placed the theremin squarely in a technophobic tradition extending back to the invention of the telegraph, of perceiving new electronic technologies as somehow haunted by the otherworldly.

First the telegraph, then the wireless, and then radio, inspired both fears and positive musings about how technology might inadvertently contact the dead. Yet the obsession with the aether also had a utopian side in the tendency to believe that new technologies could be harnessed to contact friendly spirits or forces Later, the concern was transformed to speculation about aliens in outer space or other dimensions; with the arrival of broadcast radio, and later television, the hope for contacting other dimensions was transformed into a dread of invasion In short, Thrmins name for his invention suggested an otherworldly origin despite its sound basis in material reality.

Both Hayward and Leydon argue that, because the instrument is not touched when played, the performer gives the appearance of summoning sound, which contributes to its otherworldly sensibility Leydon 31 , and this impression is reected in the contemporaneous reviews, one of which summons a fanciful image of an entire orchestra of theremin players gracefully waving their hands about like futuristic dancers Kaempffert, Wave of the Hand.

With Thrmins disappearance from the electronic scene and notwithstanding the venerable career of Clara Rockmore perhaps these otherworldly associations could only begin to cluster more thickly about the theremin. Thus it may have been inevitable that, despite the ambitions of its inventor, the theremin quickly found its way into movie music, where its action-at-a-distance method of sound production led to its use as a sonic marker for unseen forces: Moreover, as many a lm historian has noted, the late s and s marked the passage of Hollywoods Golden Age; this was a time of crisis and transformation for the lm industry.

It also marked a time of divergence and experimentation among lm music composers Wierzbicki, FH , accompanied by signicant technological changes as well. Certainly there continued to be a demand for compositions in the vein of the classical Hollywood score, but at the same time a space emerged for music, often in lower budget offerings, that was different in its sonority and idiom One example that can be given is the incorporation of jazz rhythms and motifs into scores, such as in the score for A Streetcar Named Desire Another must be the opening that was created for the entry of a new instrumental sound in the form of the theremin.

It was rst employed in a handful of Soviet lms and later received its debut in America on the radio program The Green Hornet Wierzbicki, Vibrations In Lady in the Dark , the theremin made its rst lm appearance. However, the theremins presence in lm music might have ceased there had it not been for three men Harry Revel, Les Baxter and Mikls Rzsa. Revel was primarily a composer of stage music, but at one point in his life had become interested in the therapeutic possibilities of the theremin and recorded several records, with Baxter arranging and producing.

Somewhat improbably, Revel thus became a major inuence in what was to become known as space-age jazz. Baxter was well-known as a producer of musical exotica and was also to become a founder of space-age jazz; later, he would be a composer of dozens of scores for low budget sci- and horror lms.

The featured theremin player on the Revel-Baxter albums was Samuel Hoffman; he was later called out of retirement to play the theremin for the score for Spellbound Rzsa turned to the theremin after Hitchcock instructed him to nd a new sound Hayward 9 for the lms score. In a handful of movies that came after, the sonority of the theremin became quickly associated with themes of mental instability, threat, and nally the alien or monstrous.

Indeed, for a time, the theremin became a staple of science ction lm and television. It is clear that the sound of the theremin imprinted itself on the cultural memories of both artists and lm goers, although with access to the next generation of electronic instruments, composers for sci- lms often resorted to the creation of theremin-like sounds and gestures Wierzbicki, Vibrations rather than the theremin.

In the latter case a coloratura soprano impersonated the theremin Waldron; Wierzbicki, Vibrations More recently, the theremin itself has reappeared in lm tributes to science ction of the s; Howard Shore and Danny Elfman, in scoring Ed Wood and Mars Attacks! Certainly the theremin became weird by a process of cultural association but was this process truly inevitable?

The instrument does seem subject to pitch instability, a slippery or slithery quality. In musical language, this means that the theremin tends to hit notes that are not within the tonal structure of whatever key the music is using, assuming it is using one at all. This instability equals dissonance, which equates to tension.

This is why it is possible to create the monster sound with theremin-like gestures on other instruments such as in the Clovereld score as I described earlier; fundamentally it would require only a melody built on a chromatic scale, preferably in a high register, with strong vibrato. Of course, certain timbres are more appropriate than others, which is why other weird sonorities within sci have tended towards electronic organs.

Of these, the most consistently associated with sci- and horror is the Hammond Novachord, which is considered by some to be the rst synthesizer Cirocco. Manufactured by Hammond from to , the Novachord was never truly accepted by the avant-garde movement but nevertheless found its way into a number of lm scores: Jerry Goldsmith also used it in his scores for: As I stated earlier, there are two prongs to the avant-garde music movement, one of which was the creation of new instruments.

The other was the creation, or more appropriately, the discovery, of new sounds. Indeed, these two aspects of the avant-garde were always ongoing and interwoven; a single composition or project could encompass both objectives. In considering the legacy of avant-gardists like John Cage and Edgard Varse, it is virtually impossible to separate their contributions to the electronic music movement10 from their contributions to the concept of found sounds or what ultimately was articulated by Pierre Schaeffer working in Paris as the musique concrte movement Chadabe The objective of musique concrte was the nding of sounds in ones environment which could be used in the making of music, the turning of everyday sounds into sound objects Prendergast They could be re-rerecorded.

They could also be combined with traditional acoustic instruments or with electronically processed sounds such as those created by the vocorder Chadabe As tape music gathered strength as a method and movement through the late s and into the s, a number of tape music studios sprung up in Berlin, London, Paris, Toronto, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires and New York notably the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center.

Again, whether it was called experimental, or tape music or music concrte, it was always also electronic music, and it was generally atonal. Along with the theremin, this community of experimental musicians made some notable contributions to sci- lm scores. The example par excellence here is Forbidden Planet The score for this lm consisted entirely of the electronic tonalities created by Bebe and Louis Barron, who were themselves contemporaries and peers of John Cage.

Theirs was the rst entirely electronic score for a lm, although not the only; in the early s, Eduard Artemyev and Evgeny Murzin collaborated on the score for Tarkovskys Solyaris, working out of the Moscow Experimental Studio Prendergast In similar fashion, many avant-garde musicians in Britain were associated at one time or another with the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, the entity responsible for scoring and sound effects for the BBCs Dr.

Tristram Cary, a composer of experimental electronic music, composed the familiar, electronic theme for the show; this theme has been updated numerous times throughout the years but is still electronic and essentially the same Chadabe However, it is the Barrons score for Forbidden Planet that truly stands out as experiment, constructed of a host of idiosyncratic circuits that died even as they fullled their purpose.

Recorded on magnetic tape that was spliced, rerecorded with changes of tape speed and direction, with added echo and reverb Leydon 62 , these intergalactic burbles, wails and whistles straddle the line between music and sound effect, leading to the invention of the terminology electronic tonalities in the lms credits Moreover, the alienness of this music is expressed not only in the oddity of the sounds timbres but in the apparent absence of recognizable pitch systems or rhythmic structures.

Still, Leydon argues that the Barrons music, even with its lack of tonality, still functions as a traditional lm score, in that it uses leitmotif-like gures that represent certain thematic elements For instance, the opening title cue takes us through a formless, black space lled with stars, often represented as terrifyingly alien in cinema.

Forbidden Planet is unusual among. Roger Corman produced and directed numerous horror and sci- lms, many for American International Pictures which were, in turn, often scored by Lex Baxter. This relegation to the world of quasi-exploitation was not a fall from grace for Baxter, who was rst and foremost an experimentalist and enjoyed the freedom provided by scoring horror lms Kraft and Bohn In an interview for Soundtrack!

In that same interview, he also compared his style to Stravinsky. Furthermore, many of his scores included either the theremin or theremin-like sounds for the purpose of establishing altered states or moods of intense eeriness. For example, Baxters score for The Man with the X-Ray Eyes used the theremin to set apart the protagonists altered vision.

In this lm, Dr. Xavier invents a potion that he takes in increased doses, allowing him to see deeper and deeper into the structure of reality. Hence in this instance the timbre of the theremin does not signify an alien in the traditional sense, although it could be said that Xavier becomes an alien; he loses the ability to relate to people in a normal fashion, loses his medical license, falls under the control of a criminal and eventually puts out his eyes, unable to cope with what he sees.

Almost a decade later, in his score for Frogs , Baxter put to use one of the latest technological innovations, the synthesizer, and created a score from entirely from the electronically-processed noises of, well, frogs. Even as the volume of Baxters cinematic compositions had been growing, the world of electronic instruments saw one of its most groundbreaking inventions in the Moog synthesizer, named after Robert Moog pronounced mogue.

In his youth, Moog was a theremin-maker; later, he received a commission for a modular electronic instrument rst named synthesizer in with programmable sounds Chadabe Inevitably because the piano holds such a formidable symbolic place in western cul-. In , Wendy Carloss Switched on Bach, an entire classical record recorded on a Moog synthesizer, was a huge hit Prendergast Simultaneously, other synthesizers were being developed in other studios in Europe and North America.

There seems to be little purpose in summarizing the passage of each electronic instrument that followed after the Moog, as there are too many too summarize,11 and their development is such that their different properties have little to do with timbre and more to do with cost, versatility and other considerations some practical, some ephemeral. Essentially, electronic music as it is now understood by most people was now possible; the history of electronica becomes a question of styles, sounds and cultures.

As for the history of sci- scoring, it continues as before, an exploration of certain conventions or tropes within scores. Synthesized Mainstreams, Alien Heroes The popular avant-garde did not fade away with the invention of the synthesizer, but evolved. Its synthetic entities could be found biding among musical scores that invoked equally, or even to a greater extent, the classical tradition.

For example, the Vangelis score for Blade Runner uses a synthesizer not only to create ambient sounds but also to simulate an entire orchestra Hannan and Carey Similarly, the main title for Terminator 2: Judgment Day ; composed by Brad Fiedel is if nothing else a thoroughly catchy melody that suggests heroic drama, set to an industrial-electronic backbeat, while the title themes of Total Recall ; Jerry Goldsmith and Robocop ; Basil Poledouris have qualities that suggest fast-paced romantic adventure, while also employing electronic backbeats.

In The Matrix the result was an industrial-techno soundtrack comprised both of an original score and selected songs by Propellerheads, Marilyn Manson, Meat Beat Manifesto, and others. There could not possibly be any music more appropriate to depict a virtual world built and maintained by machines, inhabited by human consciousnesses literally plugged into the narrative by a plug in the back of the neck.

Indeed, The Matrix is the epitome of what I consider to be the cyborg nature of science ction lm. Yet contemporary lms, no less than The Thing from Another World or The Day the Earth Stood Still, continue to call upon a music that is thoroughly grounded in the discourses of experimentation, futurity, technological progress and its inevitable antithesis, anxiety.

The Fifth Element provides a par-. It is a perfect manifestation of the concept of the cyborg, combining images and sounds both of organic humanity and technological wonder images and sounds that, in similar fashion, can only be accomplished by a blending of the analog and the digital. The music produced by Eric Serra for the latter lm draws frequently on an industrial-style backbeat, fusing it with vaguely eastern harmonies and melodic lines.

Luc Besson gives us a shiny, plastic world in which technology is imminent in ordinary life, and the music suits it; the electronic sounds of The Fifth Element are pleasantly articial, stimulating an affect of wonder and excitement even while accompanying an urban future with related anxieties about authenticity and repetition.

Serras music seems, at other times, like a direct tribute to Bebe and Louis Barron, particularly in the opening title sequence which features a collage of non-melodic, random burbles and groans, shown accompanying a starscape much as in the opening title of Forbidden Planet. In other parts of the lm these random, synthesized sounds are blended with ambient drones, most often in relation to the encounter with the alien.

One rather memorable scene perfectly encapsulates the presence of the alien within the mainstream genre of sci-. In this sequence, the hero Korben Dallas attends the performance of an intergalactic, ten-foot tall, blue-skinned diva. Her vocal performance is comprised of an operatic aria from the Earth repertoire which then transforms itself into a rather eerie melody that leaps and soars over monstrous intervals in a virtuoso display, accompanied by a funky backbeat.

It then transforms further into a line that is almost entirely avant-garde, not recognizable as melody in the traditional sense. The performance itself is comprised of an authentic human female performance, to which electronic notes are matched to the vocal timbre in order to create a vocal line that would be impossible for any human voice to execute. This scene is intercut with shots of the female protagonist, Leeloo, kicking bad-guy ass with super-human prowess.

Serra presents a part-human, part-electronic voice belting out a melodic line that is, if not atonal, certainly atypical, strongly avored by chromaticism; thus Besson suggests a concordance between the alien and a benevolent but ultimately strange female power. The Fifth Element is somewhat unusual in its willingness to view the future as redeemable.

More frequently in contemporary sci- lms, the technological is utilized towards more dystopian ends. The electronic, even in some innocuous backbeat or ambient pulse, thus accesses both the powers and the horrors of technology, the nostalgia for a more authentic past and the terror of the perfect but soulless copy.

The signicance of the electronic within sci is encapsulated perfectly by the metallic, repetitive drone Brad Fiedel employed as the theme of the T throughout Terminator 2: Judgment Day whenever the relentless, killing machine is on-screen; it is terrifying in its. Moreover, its presence in the lm is a further demonstration of the cyborg nature of science ction lm, with its accretion of disparate visual and aural pieces, all more or less organic, some purporting to be natural, others deliberately synthetic.

The use of a machine to generate electronic sounds is even further appropriate to the genre if we consider the longstanding tradition of spectacle within sci- lm. Alongside any inherent eeriness they might convey, electronic sounds have a quality of aural spectacle, a sound that is recognized and therefore potentially celebrated as human invention.

It can take on a considerable array of different sonorities and moods, yet there is one quality that it can never entirely shake. As a musical instrument, the computer or synthesizer is suspect; while a violin or drum is no less a product of human technology than a synthesizer, electronically-generated music tends to connote a relative lack of authenticity.

When it purports to copy the sound of an acoustic instrument, the synthesizer is deemed by some to be lacking, even as others would equate this achievement with the heights of technological progress. Indeed, there is some suggestion that our brains physically interpret electronic sounds as in some way profoundly articial in relation to the sounds produced by other instruments.

The particular timbre, loudness and pitch of a sound are created by minute changes in the sound; it is these alterations rather than any continuity in sound which our auditory cortex interprets and such changes which are lacking in a synthesized sound Jourdain Thus, no matter how pleasing it may be to the ear, the electronic may always signify both itself and an anxiety about authenticity, and might have always been pre-destined to be alien.

Conclusion There tends to be some obviousness about our received generic scoring traditions. Romance sounds like romance, cowboys sound like cowboys, villains sound like villains how could they ever have sounded like anything else? Put another way, no other instrument could be as appropriate to sci- lm music as a synthesizer or a theremin, and nothing sounds quite as perfectly alien as the atonal.

But I would argue that it has been well worth examining how these tropes took shape as a process of cultural-historical negotiation, for they were in fact borrowed at more than one point from the musical avant-garde, a tradition which is ostensibly inhospitable to any art form lled with brain-eating aliens, robots, space ships, laser-guns, marauding dinosaurs, and toys that transform into cars.

There is always a value. Furthermore, and more to the point, sci- and the avant-garde have something of a shared discursive history; they originated in a similar cultural context and had a shared desire to imagine the consequences of technological progress.

This should be apparent from my very brief sketch of the history of electronic instruments. On one hand, it is clear that lm composers reached out to atonality and to electronic instruments when in search of new sonorities; on the other hand, members of the experimental electronic music community seemed to nd sci- or more broadly, fantastic lm a congenial genre for their occasional forays into lm music scoring.

Once installed within the genre, however, their musical contributions lost many of their original connotations of the avant-garde, cheapened by their association with a lesser cultural form. Simultaneously, this music was embraced by a new community, given its association with the lm music of a beloved lm genre a lm genre that is, for its part, often dismissed in avant-garde circles.

Thus a sound that is ugly or incomprehensible in many contexts yet became beautiful, profound or at least interesting in the context of lm. Music which has virtually no popular audience, once adapted by soundtrack composers, has become the love object of many an afcionado and collector. The same person who has never heard a Charles Ives symphony or a Bla Bartk concerto will consume with relish Howard Shores deeply atonal scores for David Cronenbergs lms or Elliot Goldenthals fascinatingly profane choral arrangements for Alien3 or Interview with the Vampire because they have been put in a palatable context.

Fascinatingly, the qualities heard in the music seem to have been there all along. The neutrality of avant-garde music so cherished by Eisler and Adorno is precisely what is taken away with its successful adoption into lm. In short, the music of the experimentalists became popular, programmatic and mainstream, and yet I contend that there remains something avantgarde about this monster music even though it may be, at times to repurpose Donnellys phrase the lowest of low art.

A cynic or neo-marxist may insist that high art, once adopted into a popular context, such as that of the cinema, instantly becomes low art, in which case there can be no paradox. I would respond as follows: Yet it has successfully acquired some avant-garde musical elements. My cynic may rebut that the avant-garde elements have been popularized and bastardized beyond recognition, and this is of course true to some extent.

The mainstream always remains mainstream, or in other words: Extreme musical departures risk alienating audiences Hayward At the same time, however, it is inter-. By denition, the alien is something beyond the boundaries of the normal, much like the avant-garde itself. Even in its cheesiest manifestations, sci- always wants to confront the mainstream with some kind of alien while the avant-garde is, in a sense, obsessed with being another kind of alien to the mainstream.

I would argue that there has always been something about scis use of the atonal and the dissonant that remains true to its origins. If the very nature of the avant-garde is to be liminal, the idea of a popular avantgarde must remain a paradox. NOTES 1. I would invite the reader to visit http: This label specializes in preserving and recording the monster movie lm scores of lesser known lm composers like Stein.

Audio clips are available for listening on the website; the listener only needs to download RealPlayer. CDs can also be ordered direct from the website. Audiences would only have had the opportunity to hear Giacchinos music if they chose to sit through the credits at the end of the lm.

Because of the premise of the lm the audience is watching real digital footage lmed by victims of invasion by a mysterious, Godzilla-sized monster that attacks and substantially destroys Manhattan Island a non-diegetic score would have detracted from the reality effect. I will not engage in an extensive consideration of preWorld War II scores.

According to Hayward, scores for preWar Sci-Fi lms He adds, this is all the more marked given that the early 20th century was a period of considerable experimentation in sound and music in both the ne and popular elds 8. For those who are unfamiliar with this terminology, the familiar do-re-me scale that is most familiar to us consists of eight tones comprised of whole and half tones.

The bulk of the tradition of Western music is based around this scale a major version and a minor version. Tonal music, put simply, is music that explores harmonic and melodic development of a single chord built from the tonal scale; it departs from the particular consonance of this chord only for the purpose of returning more resolutely to it.

In the course of this development, dissonance may be employed, and indeed, dissonance is a key ingredient in tonal music. Schoenbergs innovation was the development of music based on a twelve-tone, chromatic scale; these twelve tones are obtained by parsing the octave into its constituent half-tones. Tonal music can employ chromaticism and dissonance; the denitive difference between tonality and atonality is that in the former such dissonance is employed in order to build a tension which is harmonically resolved.

Atonality eschews this entire structure, refusing not only the 8-tone scale but the entire program of traditional harmonic design. Put another way, it avoids resolution as we in the western cultures inevitably learn to hear it. Without the end-game of tonal resolution, even the most uneducated musical ear will hear an absence of satisfaction that they are accustomed to hearing; the effect is uncomfortable to many.

It is no less structured, however. I am certainly not the rst to remark upon this, so I will leave it at that. There is no real consensus as to where sci- begins. It has many literary antecedents, some of which may extend back to the ancient world; however, many will agree that much of the gravitational credit for the accretion of the threads into the modern genre is due to Jules Verne and H.

The credit for the creation of the term science ction is due to the inuential publisher of Amazing Stories, Hugo Gernsback Telotte Of the dozen or other electronic instruments that were invented through the s and , probably the most well known is the Ondes Martenot, created by Maurice Martenot of France and premiered in Chadabe The instrument was sufciently successful that it has been incorporated into a number of compositions, and supposedly has been used in over lm scores in France Prendergast Also of note is the Trautonium; an improved version of this instrument called the Misturtrautonium was used to create sound effects for Hitchcocks The Birds Chadabe In , he returned to the United States for a visit.

These events are presented in a documentary lm by Steve M. Many consider one of Varses nest achievements in terms of electronica to be his Pome electronique, which was created for the Philips pavilion at the Brussels World Fair of , co-designed by Le Corbusier and fellow experimental composer Iannis Xenakis. The piece was created for eleven-channel tape, relayed through speakers. An eightminute chorus of bells, piano, organs, pulse-generated drums, continuous rhythm and an electronically-processed girls voice was looped on tape.

It was accompanied by synchronized images and ashing lights. The composition was experienced by approximately two million people Prendergast One of these was the Synket in Rome, in early , which became the center of a musical ensemble that eventually included Ennio Morricone Chadabe , the noted composer of hundreds of lm scores, including many Italian horror lms.

It Came from Outer Space. Universal Studios, Composer Herman Stein. Universal, Benjamin, Walter. Media and Cultural Studies: Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas Kellner. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, Besson, Luc, dir. The Fifth Element. Composer Eric Serra.

Columbia Tristar Home Video, Buhler, James. Analysing Interactions of Music and Film. Film Music: Critical Approaches. Edinburgh University Press, Burton, Tim, dir. Ed Wood Special Edition. Composer Howard Shore. Buena Vista Home Video, Mars Attacks! Composer Danny Elfman. Warner Brothers, Cameron, James, dir.

Terminator 2: Judgment Day Extreme Edition. Composer Brad Fiedel. Artisan Universal , Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Cirocco, Phil. Novachord Restoration Project. Retrieved 3 Jun House of Usher.

Composer Les Baxter. The Man with the X-Ray Eyes. The Roger Corman Collection , The Pit and the Pendulum. The Raven. MGM, The Terror. UAV Entertainment, Donnelly, K. The Spectre of Sound: Music in Film and Television. BFI, Downes, Olin. Theremin Opens a Musical Vista.

The New York Times. Eisler, Hans, and Theodor Adorno. Composing for the Films. Fincher, David, dir. Composer Elliot Goldenthal. Fox, Fox, Margalit. Gorbman, Claudia. Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music. Hannan, Michael, and Melissa Carey. Ambient Soundscapes in Blade Runner. Off the Planet: Music, Sound and Science Fiction Cinema. Philip Hayward. Eastleigh, UK: John Libbey, Hayward, Philip.

Music, Sound and Genre History. Hessler, Gordon, dir. Cry of the Banshee. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. Composer Mikls Rzsa. Anchor Bay Entertainment, The Birds Collectors Edition. Inventor to Exhibit Ether Music Here. New York Times 22 Dec. Jordan, Neil, dir. Interview with the Vampire.

Warner Home Video, Jourdain, Robert. Music, the Brain and Ecstacy: How Music Captures Our Imagination. HarperCollins, Kaempffert, Waldemar. Ether Wave Music Amazes Savants. Music From the Air with a Wave of the Hand. Kenton, Erle C. House of Frankenstein. Composers Hans J.

Salter and Paul Dessau. Universal Studios The Legacy Collection , House of Dracula. Composer William Lava. Klawans, Stuart. An Electronic Odyssey Review. The Nation. Kraft, David, and Ronald Bohn. A Conversation with Les Baxter. Kubrick, Stanley, dir.

Leydon, Rebecca. Forbidden Planet: Effects and Affects in the Electro Avant-Garde. Hooked on Aetherophonics: The Day the Earth Stood Still. McCowan, George. Composer Les Baxer. Neill, Roy William, dir. Frankenstein Meets the Wolfman. Composer Hans J. Neumann, Kurt, dir. Rocketship X-M. Composer Ferde Grof. Image Entertainment, Newman, Joseph M. This Island Earth. Nyby, Christian, and Howard Hawks, dirs.

The Thing from Another World. Composer Dmitri Tiomkin. Turner Home Entertainment, Prendergast, Mark. The Ambient Century: Bloomsbury, Prunieres, Henry. Ether Wave Used. Reeves, Matt, dir. Composer Michael Giacchino. Paramount Home Entertainment, Sconce, Jeffrey. Haunted Media: Electronic Presence from Telegraphy to Television.

Duke University Press, Scott, Ridley, dir. Composer Jerry Goldsmith. Twentieth Century Fox, Blade Runner The Directors Cut. Composer Vangelis. Sturges, John, dir. The Satan Bug. Tarkovsky, Andrei, dir. Composer Eduard Artemyev. Toop, David. Fabricated Soundscapes in a Real World. Serpents Tail, Oceans of Sound: Tourneur, Jacques, dir.

Cat People. Composer Roy Webb. Verhoeven, Paul, dir. Total Recall. Composer Basil Poledouris. Criterion, Vogel, Virgil W. The Mole People. Wachowski, Andy, and Wachowski Larry, dirs. The Matrix Special Edition. Composer Don Davis. Waldron, Duncan. Ghostly Electronic Music with a Modern Twist.

Retro Thing: Vintage Gadgets and Technolog y. Accessed 3 June A History. Taylor and Francis, Weird Vibrations: Journal of Popular Film and Television 30 Wilcox, Fred M. Forbidden Planet. Composers Bebe and Louis Barron. Wise, Robert, dir. Composer Bernard Hermann.

Twentieth CenturyFox, Edney and Kit Hughes The year is The last humans left Earth over years ago. After total exploitation of its natural resources, the planet became an uninhabitable wasteland. Skyscrapers made of refuse tower over a once glittering city, while dust storms ravage streets lined with advertisements selling to the long dead.

The progeny of the humans who managed to escape Earth have been conned to a spaceship for over seven centuries. Raised and regulated by an army of machines, the new humans are condemned to the electric chair a life support system designed to immobilize and distract, complete with a digital screen permanently planted six inches in front of the eyes.

Gorged on liquid diets and corporate slogans, these men and women have no memory of Earth or culture. The only systems that make sense are capitalism and digital circuits. Humanitys last hope lies with a Frankenstein monster left behind on Earth a machine who has learned to endlessly build and rebuild himself out of the cannibalized parts of fallen comrades. At once postapocalyptic and utopian, the lms plot and naming conventions allow for multiple and often contradictory readings.

While the situation for humans appears bleak at best, it seems that much of the lms audience took heart in the convincing pluck of the lms title character a robot, whose name is actually an acronym for Waste Allocation Load Lifter Earth-Class and his attempt at a romance with EVE Extraterrestrial Vegetation Evaluator , a female robot Toying with the very ways in which we might dene or locate articial life, the lm pushes humans to the periphery with a narrative that borders on dystopian horror while at the same time it casts anthropomorphized robots as its romantic leads in a retelling of the Genesis story.

And yet, such a dark sketch of the lm seems dramatically overstated, especially considering the warm responses from reviewers. While many critics link WALL-E to silent comedy traditions or praise the talents of sound engineer Brad Burt and his uncanny ability to provide robots including Star Wars R2D2 with personality, one critic even dismisses the horror latent in the representation of future humans representation by referring to passengers of the Axiom spaceship as hilariously infantile technology-junkie couch potatoes Gleiberman Furthermore, reviewers and critics on both sides of the political spectrum often found the lm and its ultimately rosy conclusion suited to their conicting ideologies.

As the online science ction site io9. You may have thought Pixars trashbot epic WALL-E was an environmentalist screed about humans ruining the planet through over-consumption. But youd be wrong, say a rising chorus of conservative commentators. Indeed, one of the reasons conservative commentators tended to approve of the lm was the ease with which the little trash compactor WALL-E, EVE, and the exiled humans could be read through the lens of the Old Testament.

In what follows, we investigate how WALL-E balances these possible contradictions, a question we consider tightly bound to the hybridity of the lms genre s. More specically, we believe that the lms soundtrack, an often-commented upon yet under-explored aspect of the lm, provides particular insight into WALL-Es generic identity and its successful mediation of the tension between horror and utopia.

First, we will investigate WALL-Es relationship with music borrowed from two landmark science ction lms, one that illustrates the horrors of machines becoming sentient: Stanly Kubricks A Space Odyssey , and the other which examines the extent to which humans are already machines: Godfrey Reggios lesser-known Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of Balance The ensuing discussion focuses primarily on the thematic relationships between all three lms and elements of their shared science ction horror generic identity with an eye to the use and function of previously recorded classical music tied to a particular cinematic context.

After this investigation of the WALL-E as a possible horror lm, we will turn to the lms use of songs from the lm musical Hello Dolly! Finally, we will consider the relationship between the Hollywood musical, utopian science ction, and how the conventions of both lm genres work in tandem. Ultimately, we hope this study points to the importance of considering the music and sounds contained within lms when attempting to understand a lm within the rubric of its genre.

Indeed, seriously considering how music is used within lms can signicantly complicate and deepen understandings of what is meant by genre. The obvious nods to avant-garde silent or almost silent lms and Koyaanisqatsi complicate any singular reading of WALL-E as a simple nostalgic re-rendering of old-fashioned Hollywood musicals or Buster Keaton comedies, since, as we will show, such inclusions contribute to a possible interpretation of the lm as a science ction horror, chronicling the evolution of man-made life forms that eventually eclipse their creators.

Indeed, a major concern, the almost silent rst act is exploring the Earths polluted landscape through different motives and movements of the two robots. Although it is a landscape happily inhabited by machines, it is hard to conceive of the Earth as a welcoming site for humans as we know them.

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The time was now. In similar fashion, many avant-garde musicians in Britain were associated at one time or another with the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, the entity responsible for scoring and sound effects for the BBCs Dr. Music From the Air with a Wave of the Hand.

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The product range was increased in the early s from props and technical documents to more general merchandise. The only byproduct is glycerin — a primary ingredient in soap — which is biodegradable. However I assume that a few hundred small satellites are real. Fontaine launched a war against Ryan using an army of plasmid-enhanced soldiers, but was apparently killed in the fight.


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